Developmental Cascade Molar Length Data

Data on mammal tooth sizes used to construct Figure 3 in "Polly, P.D.  2007.  Development with a Bite.  News & Views.  Nature, 449: 413-415." The same figure is also available here showing the common names of all species and the latin names of all species.

[Download tooth size data] 37 KB, XLS Format
[Download figure with common names] PDF Format
[Download figure with Latin names] PDF Format

Equidistant Geographic Grid Points and Modern Climate

Database of equidistant grid points covering the globe at 25 km, 50 km, and 100 km intervals. A separate table of points just for the continent of North America is provided, with an ID that links each point into the global 50 km grid.

A detailed set of North American 50 km points is available with the following data linked to the 50 km grid by the point's ID number:

  1. Elevation from "TerrainBase Global Land Elevation and Ocean Depth" from the National Geophysical Data Center and World Data Centers-A for Solid Earth Geophysics and for Marine Geology and Geophysics (NGDC/WDC-A)

  2. Precipitation and Temperature from "Global Air Temperature and Precipitation: Regridded Monthly and Annual Climatologies" from Wilmott, Matsuura and Legates, Center for Climatic Research, University of Delaware.

  3. Macrovegetation cover from Matthews, 1984. "Prescription of Land-surface Boundary Conditions in GISS GCM II: A Simple Method Based on High-resolution Vegetation Data Sets". NASA TM-86096.

  4. Ecoregions from R.G. Bailey, "Ecoregions of North America", Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.

  5. Bioclimatic variables on temperature, seasonality, precipitation, etc. from the WorldClim Global Climate Data set compiled by Hijmans et al., 2005.

[Download grids with elevation data]4.4 MB, zipped mySQL insert file
[Download grids separated into continents]0.5 MB, zipped mySQL insert file
[Download grid shapefiles separated by continent] 1.1 MB, zipped GIS shapefiles
[Download Matthew's vegetation cover for 50 km grid] 425 KB, zipped mySQL insert file
[Download Holdridge Lifezones and Bailey ecoregions for 50 km grid] 3.2 MB, zipped mySQL insert file

North America:
[Download the extended NA data in SQL insert format]1.8 MB, zipped mySQL insert file
[Download NA grid points in GoogleEarth KML format] 13 MB KML file

Cite these data as "Polly, P.D.  2010. Tiptoeing through the trophics: geographic variation in carnivoran locomotor ecomorphology in relation to environment.  Pp. 374-410 in A. Goswami and A. Friscia (eds.), Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function."

Pleistocene Paleoclimate (Equidistant Grid Resampling)

Database of bioclimatic variables derived from Global Circulation Model (GCM) paleoclimatic reconstructions for the Holocene Climatic Optiumum (6 KYA), the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 KYA), and the last interglacial optimum (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 120 KYA). The original GCM data were provided by the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase II (PMIP 2). These data were generated using two different climate models: CCSM, from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Otto-Biesner et al., 2006), and MIROC, from the Center for Climate System Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, and the Frontier Research Center for Global Change, all in Japan (K-1 model developers, 2004). Both models coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice. Bioclimatic variables (Hijmans et al., 2005) were computed from each data set and resampled using our equidistant 50 km grid system (see above) by Michelle Lawing.

An overview of the modeling details of all the PMIP 2 climate models can be found here. An overview of climate modeling and a comparison of these and other climate models can be found here in Chapter 8 of the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report on Climate Change. Comparisons of the terrestrial output of the models to fossil pollen distributions were made by Brewer et al., 2007.

The specific data included in this download are:

  1. Middle Holocene (6 kya) CCSM paleoclimate model (modeling details).
  2. Middle Holocene (6 kya) MIROC 3.2 paleoclimate model (modeling details).
  3. Last Glacial Maximum CCSM paleoclimate model (modeling details).
  4. Last Glacial Maximum MIROC 3.2 paleoclimate model (modeling details).
  5. Last Interglacial Average (130-116 kya) CCSM paleoclimate model (modeling details).

[Download the paleoclimate data] 15.1 MB, zipped mySQL insert file
Note: the temperature units in these data are in degrees C and the precipitation units in mm.

Pinniped skull scans (from Andrea Franco-Moreno)

A collection of 3D surface scans of pinniped crania and mandibles from the Gulf of California created by Dr. Andrea Franco-Moreno for her project on niche partitioning by skull feeding mechanics and bite force. These data are available from MorphoSource: 

Ankle gear ratios from North American carnivores (Mammalia, Carnivora)

These data consist of gear ratio measurements of the calcanea (ankle bones) of all living North American mammal carnivore species and selected extinct species (Vertebrata, Mammalia, Carnivora). The gear ratio is the ratio of the maximum length of the calcaneum to the distance between the distal edge of the sustentacular facet to the proximal end of the calcaneal tuber. Full description may be found in Polly et al., 2017.  Funding for data collection was provided by Funding for development for this package has been provided by grants NSF EAR 1338298.  The data are available through the IU ScholarWorks repository: 

Data from: Spatial processes and evolutionary models: a critical review

Modeling output and other data from Polly (2019) "Spatial processes and evolutionary models: a critical review".  These data consist of computer code, outputs of modeling runs showing expansion and contraction of a metapopulation under Brownian motion, and analytical extracts from those data. The data can be downloaded from Dryad:

Snake Phylogenies and Tail Length Data

Supplemental appendix for Lawing, A.M., J.J. Head, and P.D. Polly. 2012. The ecology of morphology: the ecometrics of locomotion and macroenvironment in North American snakes. Pp. 117-146 in J. Louys (ed), Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. [PDF]

[Available from IU Scholarworks] 262 KB, PDF Format

Carnivore and Creodont Phylogenetic Matrices

Phylogenetic character matrix of hyaenodontid creodonts from Polly, 1996.  
[Download as Nexus File] [Download as Hennig86 File]

Phylogenetic character matrix of carnivorans from Polly et al., 2006.  
[Download as Nexus File]

Carnivore calcaneum measurements and phylogenetic trees

Supplemental data on North American carnivoran ankle ecometrics from Polly, 2020.

Calcaneum gear ratios from North American fossil and extant carnivorans
[Download Excel File]

Calcaneum measurements from extant North American carnivorans
[Download Excel File]

Calcaneum measurements from extinct North American carnivorans
[Download Excel File]

Phylogenetic tree of extant carnivorans (derived from Humphreys & Barraclough, 2014)
[Download Newick Tree File]

Composite phylogenetic tree of North American carnivorans (extant and extinct)
[Download Newick Tree File]

Figure showing phylogenetic tree of North American carnivoras with species labels
[Download PDF file]